Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking (2023)

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Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking (1)

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Issue: Volume 12 Issue 14> Articles

Robyn Collins

This article originally appeared in the April 2014 edition of ISQBriefings, a publication of Independent Schools Queensland. Republished with permission.

It is hard to imagine a teacher or school leader who is not aware of the importance of teaching higher-order thinking skills to prepare young men and women to live in the 21st Century. However, the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are taught and assessed continues to be an area of debate, with many teachers and employers expressing concern that young people ‘cannot think’.

What are we talking about when we talk about ‘higher-order thinking’? Brookhart (2010) identifies definitions of higher-order thinking as falling into three categories: (1) those that define higher-order thinking in terms of transfer, (2) those that define it in terms of critical thinking, and (3) those that define it in terms of problem solving.

In the category of transfer, Anderson, Krathwohl et al (2001) define transfer in how it differs from retention: Two of the most important educational goals are to promote retention and to promote transfer (which, when it occurs, indicates meaningful learning) … retention requires that students remember what they have learned, whereas transfer requires students not only to remember but also to make sense of and be able to use what they have learned.

While learning for recall requires thinking, the higher-order thinking is in ‘transfer’. That is, students not only acquire the knowledge and skills, but also can apply them to new situations. It is this kind of thinking, according to Brookhart (2010) that applies to life outside of school where thinking is characterised by ‘a series of transfer opportunities (rather) than as a series of recall assignments to be done’.

The critical thinking category includes definitions that refer to ‘reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do’ (Norris & Ennis, 1989) and ‘artful thinking’, which includes reasoning, questioning and investigating, observing and describing, comparing and connecting, finding complexity, and exploring viewpoints (Barahal, 2008).

(Video) 21st Century Skills: Higher Order Thinking – Math

In critical thinking, being able ‘to think’ means students can apply wise judgment or produce a reasoned critique. The goal of teaching is then to equip students to be wise by guiding them towards how to make sound decisions and exercise reasoned judgment. The skills students need to be taught to do this include: the ability to judge the credibility of a source; identify assumptions, generalisation and bias; identify connotation in language use; understand the purpose of a written or spoken text; identify the audience; and to make critical judgments about the relative effectiveness of various strategies used to meet the purpose of the text.

In the problem-solving category Brookhart provides the following definition: A student incurs a problem when the student wants to reach a specific outcome or goal but does not automatically recognize the proper path or solution to use to reach it. The problem to solve is how to reach the desired goal. Because a student cannot automatically recognize the proper way to reach the desired goal, she must use one or more higher-order thinking processes. These thinking processes are called problem solving (Nitko & Brookhart, 2007). They may include remembering information, learning with understanding, critically evaluating ideas, formulating creative alternatives, and communicating effectively.

The broad definition of problem solving is that it is the skill that enables a person to find a solution for a problem that cannot be solved simply by memorising (ibid). While there are many closed problems–in maths for example–that require students to use memory to repeatedly practice a particular algorithm, many problems are open-ended and cannot be solved from memory alone. Or they may have more than one solution. Or they may be genuine problems where an answer is not yet known. Problems may also be open-ended in that solutions change as circumstances change. For example, living within a budget is an open-ended problem.

Bransford and Stein (1984) point out that problem solving is the general mechanism behind all thinking, including recall, critical thinking, creative thinking, and effective communication. They assert that to recall something, students have to identify it as a problem ("I need to memorise the planets, a poem, a list of capital cities. How can I do that?") and devise a solution that works for them. Similarly, critical thinking is a matter of problem solving–how well does Shakespeare develop this character?–and communication also involves problem solving–who is my audience? How do I need to best communicate with them? What words might I use to persuade?

Project Zero developed at Harvard University, provides an example of how teachers might help students to think by viewing works of art, using an ‘Artful Thinking Palette’ (Barahal, 2008). Students were asked to use six thinking dispositions to view art: exploring viewpoints, reasoning, questioning and investigating, observing and describing, comparing and connecting, and finding complexity. Teaching students these thinking skills is not only useful in art but in other disciplines, and in preparation for standardised tests such as the Queensland Core Skills Test.

Brookhart (2010) argues that if teachers think of higher-order thinking as problem solving they can set lesson goals to teach students how to identify and solve problems at school and in life. This, she says, involves not just solving problems set by the teacher but solving new problems that ‘they define themselves, creating something new as the solution’.

How do we teach higher-order thinking?

While Bloom’s Taxonomy is not the only framework for teaching thinking, it is the most widely used, and subsequent frameworks tend to be closely linked to Bloom’s work. A committee under the leadership of Dr Benjamin Bloom created the Taxonomy in 1956. Bloom’s aim was to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analysing and evaluating, rather than just teaching students to remember facts (rote learning). Learning was divided into three domains of educational activity:

  • Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)
  • Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude or self)
  • Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

While all three domains are important for a ‘rounded’ person, it is the first domain (Cognitive) that is the subject of this paper. The cognitive domain involves ‘knowledge and the development of intellectual skills’ (Bloom, 1956). The abilities and skills within the domain are listed in six major categories starting from the simplest thinking behaviour to the most complex (see Table 1). It is generally accepted that each behaviour needs to be mastered before the next one can take place. This is useful knowledge in assisting teachers in their lesson planning.

Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking (4)
In the mid-nineties, Lorin Anderson (2000), along with her colleagues, revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy and made two major changes. She changed the six categories from nouns to verbs; and slightly rearranged them so they became:

Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking (5)
Using the Taxonomy, teachers have a framework available to them that allows them to scaffold teaching thinking skills in a structured way. Teachers can do this through the following stages.

1. Specifically teaching the language and concepts of higher-order thinking

Teachers should not only teach the language and concepts but also tell students what they are doing and why higher-order thinking skills are necessary for them to problem-solve at school and in life. For example, by using a common language, students can recognise the skill they are exercising and the level of complexity of a question. When they see words like ‘define’, ‘recognise’, ‘recall’, ‘identify’, ‘label’, ‘understand’, ‘examine’, or ‘collect’, they know they are being asked to recall facts and demonstrate their knowledge of content. When they see words like, ‘apply’, ‘solve’, ‘experiment’, ‘show’, or ‘predict’, they understand they are being asked to demonstrate application. And when a question begins with ‘appraise’, ‘judge’, ‘criticise’, or ‘decide’, they understand the higher-order thinking skill they are practising is ‘evaluation’. Teachers also have an instant checklist of whether or not the level of work they require from students is of sufficient complexity. Students should begin to practice higher-order thinking skills from primary school, but by the time they reach year 11 and 12 the bulk of class and assessment questions and discussion should be in the higher levels of the taxonomy.

2. Planning classroom questioning and discussion time to tap into particular higher-order thinking skills

(Video) 21st Century Skills: Higher Order Thinking – Introduction

The important word here is ‘plan’. Teachers, on the whole, are very good at ‘thinking on their feet’; however, without meticulous planning they are likely to ask recall questions rather than questions that require higher-order thinking. Similarly, discussions can be de-railed if they are not planned with a higher-order thinking learning objective in mind. While this does not mean every question or discussion has to be pitched at higher-order thinking, a good proportion should be. By carefully planning lessons and discussions, teachers can ensure the proportion is right. It is useful to ask a colleague to observe a class with a view to recording the percentage of higher-order thinking skills practiced in a lesson; or even to ask students to use the knowledge they have gained in learning the language of thinking to record the teacher's use of higher-order terms; or to observe and assess their classmates in planned activities. Teachers should also encourage students to reflect on their learning so they understand their thinking strengths and weaknesses.

3. Explicitly teaching subject concepts

The research is overwhelmingly in favour of explicit, direct instruction (Hattie, 2005; Marzano, 2011). This is particularly so in the teaching of concepts. Students need to understand the critical features that define what higher-order thinking skills they are practising. Once again, Bloom’s Taxonomy (or the Core Skills of the Queensland curriculum) is a useful place to start. In any subject area, students should be aware of the key concepts they must learn. They must be able to identify them and they must practice them. Teachers can help by alerting students when a key concept is being introduced, and identifying the explicit characteristics of the concept. Students need to understand whether the concept is concrete, abstract, verbal, nonverbal, or process.

For example, often students who perform poorly in mathematics have difficulty with nonverbal concepts. Simply working problems again and again with no verbal explanation will do little to help these students to understand maths concepts. Teachers have to spend time helping students to make strong connections between the manipulation of the symbols, the associated language and some form of concrete materials and images. By working through problems with students and verbalising the appropriate language, students begin to understand mathematical procedures.

Conversely, students who have difficulty with verbal concept formation need multiple examples with relatively less language, which may confuse them. That is, some students need to be shown how to solve a problem, some students told, and some need both.

In countries where attainment in maths is particularly high, it seems teachers ensure students have mastered basic concepts before proceeding to more sophisticated ones. Where students do not master basic concepts they are likely to attempt to memorise rather than to understand. While this works for them in the early years, it leads to misunderstanding and the inability to apply knowledge in the later years of schooling. It is also possibly the reason why many students ‘turn off’ maths.

Thomas and Thorne (2009) suggest a multi-step process for teaching and learning concepts, which includes:
1. name the critical (main) features of the concept
2. name some additional features of the concept
3. compare the new to the already known
4. name some false features of the concept
5. give the best examples or prototypes of the concept (what it is)
6. give some non-examples or non-prototypes (what the concept isn't)
7. identify other similar or connected concepts.

4. Providing scaffolding

Scaffolding involves giving students support at the beginning of a lesson and then gradually turning over responsibility to the students to operate on their own (Slavin, 1995). Without this limited temporary support students are unlikely to develop higher-order thinking skills; however too much scaffolding can be as detrimental as not enough. Kauchan and Eggen (1998) suggest teachers should provide ‘only enough support so that learners make progress on their own’. Too much or too little support can interfere with the development of higher-order thinking skills. Too little support, and students are left floundering; provide support even though students don’t ask for it, and they get the message they cannot do the task on their own.

Kauchan and Eggins (1998), propose the following guidelines:

1. Use scaffolding:

  • During initial learning, with a variety of examples to describe the thinking processes involved
  • Only when needed, by first checking for understanding and, if necessary, providing additional examples and explanations
  • To build on student strengths and accommodate weaknesses.

2. Provide structured representations and discussions of thinking tasks:

  • Visually represent and organise problems in concrete examples such as drawings, graphs, hierarchies, or tables
  • Demonstrate how to break up a thought problem into convenient steps, using a number of examples and encouraging students to suggest additional examples
  • Discuss examples of problems and solutions, explaining the nature of problems in detail and relating the worked-out solutions to the problems. This practice reduces the student’s need for additional teacher assistance.

3. Provide opportunities for practice in solving problems

  • Provide teacher-directed practice before independent practice, spot-checking progress on practice and providing short responses of less than 30 seconds to any single request for assistance
  • Assign frequent, short homework assignments that are logical extensions of classroom work
  • Link practice in the content area to complex, real-life situations.

5. Consciously teach to encourage higher order thinking

(Video) What Are 21st Century Skills? | AES

In order to foster deep conceptual understanding, consider using the following strategies:

  • Teach skills through real-world contexts
  • Vary the context in which student use a newly taught skill
  • Emphasise the building blocks of higher-order thinking
    • Build background knowledge
    • Classify things in categories
    • Arrange items along dimensions
    • Make hypotheses
    • Draw inferences
    • Analyse things into their components
    • Solve problems
  • Encourage students to think about the thinking strategies they are using (more details available online:

Using assignments and assessments that require intellectual work and critical thinking is associated with increased student achievement. These increases have been shown on a variety of achievement outcomes, including standardised test scores, classroom grades, and research instruments. The increases have been demonstrated in reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. And they have been documented particularly for low-achieving students. Evidence from both the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) report clear evidence that in mathematics and science instruction emphasising reasoning is associated with higher scores in all grade levels tested, while in reading, teaching for meaning (including thinking about main ideas, author's purpose, theme, and using real texts) is associated with higher NAEP performance, Wenglinsky (2004).

Higgins et al (2005), for example, did a meta-analysis of studies of thinking-skills interventions on student cognition, achievement, and attitudes. He and his colleagues found 29 studies, mostly from the United States and the United Kingdom that reported enough data to calculate effect sizes. They found very strong effects. The average effect of thinking-skills instruction was:

  • 0.62 on cognitive outcomes (for example, verbal and nonverbal reasoning tests), over 29 studies.
  • 0.62 on achievement of curricular outcomes (for example, reading, maths, or science tests), over 19 studies.
  • 1.44 on affective outcomes (attitudes and motivation), over 6 studies.

Assessing higher-order thinking skills has also been shown to assist disadvantaged students. The 'Higher Order Thinking Skills' (HOTS) program designed by Pogrow (2005) specifically for educationally disadvantaged students, is based on four kinds of thinking skills: (1) metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking; (2) making inferences; (3) transfer, or generalising ideas across contexts; and (4) synthesising information. The project is a pure thinking skills approach to assist disadvantaged students in grades 4–8 in the United States. It combines the use of Socratic dialogue, drama, and technology, and has been used in approximately 2,600 schools in 48 states. It produced student gains in standardised tests, on measures of metacognition, in writing, in problem solving, and in grade point average.

Furthermore, Pogrow found that in studies contrasting the efficacy of teaching higher-order thinking skills with teaching enhanced content instruction, the former was much better at setting up students to be flexible, allowing them to ‘understand understanding’ and to handle a variety of content.

Finally, research has shown that student motivation increases when teachers hold them accountable for higher-order thinking. This seems to be so, because teaching students higher-order thinking tasks forces them to engage in thinking about particular things, and undertaking assessment that requires intellectual work and critical thinking. Memorising, while it is useful in some cases, does not increase students’ autonomy and, to a large extent, does not contribute to mastery, although it might be argued that knowing basic facts is essential in providing building blocks for understanding. Also, it should be noted that ‘knowing things’ for immediate recall is a relatively unimportant skill. In most things we do, it is not the facts that are important but how we apply knowledge. For example, knowing the times table is useful to save time, to help in estimating and because rote learning builds useful pathways in the brain, but it is only when we use our knowledge of tables to manage our finances, plan a budget, or make decisions about whether one item is more expensive than another, that we exercise problem solving and higher-order thinking.

Therefore, in order to assess so that students can demonstrate mastery, teachers need to plan assessment items that allow students to use all the skills of the Taxonomy: analysis, evaluation, and creation (the "top end" of Bloom's Taxonomy); logical reasoning; judgment and critical thinking; problem solving; and creativity and creative thinking.

There are countless resources online and on paper to assist in the teaching of higher-order thinking, and while these are useful, an effective teacher needs to make few changes to programs already in place in order to ensure that students are encouraged to think. The research suggests that constant awareness of the language teachers use, and reflection on how the skills might be incorporated in every lesson, are pivotal in making the difference.


Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., Airasian, P. et al (2001), A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon
Barahal, S. (2008), Thinking about Thinking: Pre- Service Teachers Strengthen their Thinking Artfully, Phi Delta Kappan 90 (4)
Bloom B. S. (1956), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain, New York: David McKay Co Inc.
Bransford, J., & Stein, B. (1984), The IDEAL Problem Solver, New York: W. H. Freeman
Brookhart, S. (2010), How to Assess Higher Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom, ASCD,
Hattie, J. (2009), Visible Learning: a Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement, Oxon, OX: Routledge
Higgins, S., Hall, E., Baumfield V. & Moseley D. (2005), A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of the Implementation of Thinking Skills Approaches on Pupils, in Research in Education Library, London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research
Kauchak, D., & Eggen, P. (1998), Learning and Teaching: Research-based Methods (3rd ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Marso, R., Pigge, F. (1992), A Summary of Published Research: Classroom Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills Related to the Development and Use of Teacher-Made Tests, paper presented at the annual conference of the Midwestern Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL
Marzano, R. (2011), The Art & Science of Teaching/ The Perils and Promises of Discovery Learning, Educational Leadership, Volume 69, Number 1 

Nitko, A. & Brookhart, S. (2007), Educational Assessment of Students, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall
Norris, S. & Ennis, R. (1989), Evaluating Critical Thinking, Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications
Pogrow, S. (2005), HOTS Revisited: A Thinking Development Approach to Reducing the Learning Gap After Grade 3, Phi Delta Kappan
Slavin, R. (1995), A Model of Effective Instruction, The Educational Forum, 59
Thomas, A., and Thorne, G. (2009), How to Increase Higher Order Thinking, Metarie, LA: Center for Development and Learning,
Wenglinsky, H. (2004), Closing the Racial Achievement Gap: The Role of Reforming Instructional Practices, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12 (64)

Further Reading
Brookhart, S. (2010), How to Assess Higher Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom, ASCD,
Teacher and author Susan M. Brookhart answers the questions: What does higher-order thinking look like? And how can teachers assess it across the disciplines?

Brookhart begins by laying out principles for assessment in general and for assessment of higher-order thinking in particular. She then defines and describes aspects of higher-order thinking according to the categories established in leading taxonomies, giving specific guidance on how to assess students in the following areas:

  • Analysis, evaluation and creation
  • Logic and reasoning
  • Judgment
  • Problem solving
  • Creativity and creative thinking

The book covers how to use formative assessment to improve student work and then use summative assessment for grading or scoring.

Interesting sites:

This site provides excellent information about why we should teach higher-order thinking skills and how to teach them.

Research in Action:

This site includes a series of four short videos in which Dr Susan Brookhart describes, with examples, how best to assess higher order thinking skills in your classroom. The videos include: why higher order thinking is important, principles for designing assessment, assessing reasoning and assessing creativity. While the author regularly promotes her book in these videos, the contents of the videos are useful and worthwhile as simple and succinct summaries for teachers considering how to assess their students.

(Video) 21st Century Skills: Higher Order Thinking – Science

Included on this site are specific conversations with students to test their thinking; examples of how to increase higher-order thinking; comments about evaluation; and recommended resources.


Subject Heading

Subject Headings

Thought and thinking
Teaching and learning


What are examples of higher-order thinking skills questions? ›

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
  • What do you think could have happened next?
  • Do you know of another instance where...?
  • What would you change in the story?
  • From the information given, develop a set of instructions about ...?
  • What do you see as possible outcomes? ...
  • Why did ..... ...
  • What was the turning point?

When a teacher teaches higher-order thinking skills hots What skills does he teach explain your answer? ›

The 'Higher Order Thinking Skills' (HOTS) program designed by Pogrow (2005) specifically for educationally disadvantaged students, is based on four kinds of thinking skills: (1) metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking; (2) making inferences; (3) transfer, or generalising ideas across contexts; and (4) ...

Why is it important for teachers to develop the higher-order thinking skills of students? ›

The importance of higher order thinking

There is always more for high-ability students to learn and room for them to grow. If students exceed curriculum level outcomes, tasks can be made more challenging by targeting higher order thinking. This will set the conditions for students to extend their learning.

What is higher order thinking skills in simple words? ›

Higher order thinking is thinking on a level that is higher than memorizing facts or telling something back to someone exactly the way it was told to you. When a person memorizes and gives back the information without having to think about it, we call that rote memory.

How do you develop higher order thinking skills in the classroom? ›

The findings indicated that the strategies by the teachers to develop HOTS were as follows: (1) asking divergent questions to the students, (2) using group discussions, (3) informing learning objectives to the students, (3) giving feedback to invite the students to review, refine, and improve understanding about ...

Why is it important to include higher-level thinking questions in their instruction and in their assessments? ›

Asking higher-order questions requires more time for students to think and articulate their answers, and can greatly extend classroom conversations and learning. When students are challenged with higher-order questions, they draw from their own experience to formulate their answers.

What is an example of a higher-level question? ›

Higher-level questions that can be used after reading are: What was one moment from the story that had the greatest impact on you? If you could change one character in this story, who would it be and why?

What is higher thinking skills through IT based projects? ›

It is a combination of the following skills: (a) analyzing – ability to distinguish differences and similarities; (b) synthesizing – ability to make connections among ideas; and (c) promoting – ability to sell new ideas.

What is the importance of hots in your daily life and life as a teacher of the 21st century? ›

Teachers' responses to the second sub-theme prove that most of the teachers said that HOTS is important because of its advantages in solving various and complex problems. Therefore, HOTS-oriented learning is very important in learning process as far as it helps solve daily life problems.

How can students improve critical thinking skills? ›

How to increase critical thinking skills as a student?
  1. Ask questions. It is often seen that students hesitate to ask questions in the classroom. ...
  2. Participate in discussions. ...
  3. Practice active learning. ...
  4. Study with the help of examples. ...
  5. Go beyond academic learning.
24 Nov 2021

Why do you think it is important to develop hots among students in any subject? ›

Higher order thinking skills is a concept that notes on the different types of learning and on the difference in the amount of cognitive processing. It is a way to help students think and not just memorize and also improve their cognitive ability.

What is higher-order thinking skills in education? ›

Higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) is a concept popular in American education. It distinguishes critical thinking skills from low-order learning outcomes, such as those attained by rote memorization. HOTS include synthesizing, analyzing, reasoning, comprehending, application, and evaluation.

What is a skill that helps you learn more about yourself? ›

Self-awareness and empathy, which are two key parts of emotional intelligence. They describe understanding yourself and being able to feel for other people as if their experiences were happening to you. Assertiveness and equanimity, or self-control.

Why critical thinking skills are important for students? ›

Developing criti- cal thinking abilities translates to both academic and job success. Using these skills, students tend to expand the perspectives from which they view the world and increase their ability to navigate the important decisions in learn- ing and in life.

What is meaning of higher order? ›

Adjective. higher-order (not comparable) Involving more sophisticated thinking or reasoning. higher-order thinking. Of or relating to a class higher up in a hierarchy.

How important is creative and critical thinking in 21st century workplace? ›

Critical thinking is a key soft skill in the workplace. After all, critical thinking helps employees solve problems and build strategies that make them better at their jobs. For this reason, employers may look to hire employees who have strong critical thinking skills.

How important is creative in the 21st century workplace? ›

Creativity, along with innovation are critical skills for achieving success in the 21st century workplace. Creativity is the ability to produce new, diverse and unique ideas. Thinking creatively means looking at things from a different perspective and not be restricted by rules, customs, or norms.

How can Socratic questioning be used for improving higher-order thinking skills? ›

By using Socratic Questioning, teachers promote independent thinking in their students and give them ownership of what they are learning. Higher-level thinking skills are present while students think, discuss, debate, evaluate, and analyze content through their own thinking and the thinking of those around them.

What are the examples of assessment tools is useful to 21st century teachers? ›

The following sections describe six assessment tools and strategies shown to impact teaching and learning as well as help teachers foster a 21st century learning environment in their classrooms: 1) Rubrics, 2) Performance-based assessments (PBAs), 3) Portfolios, 4) Student self-assessment, 5) Peer-assessment, 6) ...

What should be the most important factor that a teacher must consider in creating objective type test? ›

Creating objective test questions

Word questions clearly and simply, avoiding double negatives, idiomatic language, and absolutes such as “never” or “always.” Test only a single idea in each item. Make sure wrong answers (distractors) are plausible. Incorporate common student errors as distractors.

What are the 5 critical thinking questions? ›

The questions are as follows:
  • What are the issue and the conclusion?
  • What are the reasons?
  • What are the assumptions?
  • Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
  • How good is the evidence?
30 Nov 2017

What is Bloom's higher order thinking? ›

Higher order thinking skills refer to the top three levels of Bloom's taxonomy (or revised Bloom's, referred to as RBT): analysis (analyzing), evaluation (evaluating), and synthesis (creating).

What are higher level critical thinking skills? ›

Higher level thinking includes concept formation, concept connection, getting the big picture, visualization, problem solving, questioning, idea generation, analytical (critical) thinking, practical thinking/application, and synthesizing/creative thinking.

How this technology helps in terms of teaching and learning? ›

Used to support both teaching and learning, technology infuses classrooms with digital learning tools, such as computers and hand held devices; expands course offerings, experiences, and learning materials; supports learning 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; builds 21st century skills; increases student engagement and ...

What is teaching and learning approaches? ›

We define teaching and learning approaches as theoretical concepts that describe on a meta-level how learning should be facilitated (for competence-oriented teaching and learning). Pedagogical approaches are linked to course formats and teaching methods, but not in a one-to-one matching.

What are the four 4 types of IT based projects? ›

These four are: Resource-based Project, Simple creations, Guided Hypermedia Projects and web based Projects, Resource Based project refers to finding information and the central principle is to make students go beyond the textbook and curriculum materials.

How do you answer HOTS questions? ›

How to answer a HOTS Question?
  1. Cause and Effect.
  2. Compare and Contrast.
  3. Distinguishing Different Perspectives.
  4. Explaining Patterns.
  5. Inferring.
  6. Predicting.
  7. Problem Solving.

What type of test must be given to assess the higher-order thinking skills of the learners? ›

But well-written multiple-choice items, especially those with introductory material, can also assess higher-order thinking. You wouldn't rely on multiple-choice items alone for such assessment, but it is important to be able to include on multiple-choice tests questions that tap thinking as well as recall.

Why Hots is important in an assessment? ›

HOTS assessment benefits are: 1) increase the motivation of learners for the assessment HOTS can connect the subject matter in the classroom with real-world contexts so that learning is felt more meaningful; 2) improve learning outcomes for the assessment HOTS can train the way learners think creatively and critically, ...

Why is it important for teachers to develop the higher-order thinking skills of students? ›

The importance of higher order thinking

There is always more for high-ability students to learn and room for them to grow. If students exceed curriculum level outcomes, tasks can be made more challenging by targeting higher order thinking. This will set the conditions for students to extend their learning.

When a teacher teaches higher-order thinking skills What skills does he teach? ›

The 'Higher Order Thinking Skills' (HOTS) program designed by Pogrow (2005) specifically for educationally disadvantaged students, is based on four kinds of thinking skills: (1) metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking; (2) making inferences; (3) transfer, or generalising ideas across contexts; and (4) ...

What are examples of higher-order thinking skills questions? ›

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
  • What do you think could have happened next?
  • Do you know of another instance where...?
  • What would you change in the story?
  • From the information given, develop a set of instructions about ...?
  • What do you see as possible outcomes? ...
  • Why did ..... ...
  • What was the turning point?

How can you improve your thinking skills? ›

7 Ways to Think More Critically
  1. Ask Basic Questions. “The world is complicated. ...
  2. Question Basic Assumptions. ...
  3. Be Aware of Your Mental Processes. ...
  4. Try Reversing Things. ...
  5. Evaluate the Existing Evidence. ...
  6. Remember to Think for Yourself. ...
  7. Understand That No One Thinks Critically 100% of the Time.
26 Jun 2020

How can I develop my thinking skills? ›

How to Develop Critical Thinking
  1. Don't Believe Everything You're Told. The first step to critical thinking is to consider more than one point of view. ...
  2. Don't Believe Everything You Think. ...
  3. Ask Questions. ...
  4. Research Deeper. ...
  5. Evaluate Your Work.

How a teacher can develop critical thinking in students? ›

Build in opportunities for students to find connections in learning. Encouraging students to make connections to a real-life situation and identify patterns is a great way to practice their critical thinking skills. The use of real-world scenarios will increase rigor, relevance, and critical thinking.

How does higher-order thinking skills hots affect learning ability? ›

According to Kings, Goodson, and Rohani (2013), HOTS are the ability to think that not only requires the ability to remember, but also higher capabilities. HOTS are student's abilities that are activated when students encounter unfamiliar problems, uncertainties, questions, or dilemmas.

How do you develop higher-order thinking skills in the classroom? ›

The findings indicated that the strategies by the teachers to develop HOTS were as follows: (1) asking divergent questions to the students, (2) using group discussions, (3) informing learning objectives to the students, (3) giving feedback to invite the students to review, refine, and improve understanding about ...

What is one important skill that you think everyone should have? ›

Effective Communication

Whether we're talking about writing or speaking, communication is a vital life skill that encompasses both. No one makes it through this world alone, so learning to communicate with others will help you get where you need to be in life—and it's definitely a learned skill.

Why are skills important in one's life which skills do you feel are important in your life? ›

Life skills can include the ability to manage your emotions, your health, your finances, your relationships, your school performance, etc. – and your ability to master these things has a direct impact on how you feel about yourself, your emotional balance, your physical health and your independence.

What is another term for higher-order thinking process? ›

Critical thinking is a higher-order thinking skill. Higher-order thinking skills go beyond basic observation of facts and memorization. They are what we are talking about when we want our students to be evaluative, creative and innovative.

What is the importance of HOTS questions? ›

Higher-order questions put advanced cognitive demand on students. They encourage students to think beyond literal questions. Higher-order questions promote critical thinking skills because these types of questions expect students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information instead of simply recalling facts.

What are the three higher-order thinking skills? ›

Higher order thinking skills refer to the top three levels of Bloom's taxonomy (or revised Bloom's, referred to as RBT): analysis (analyzing), evaluation (evaluating), and synthesis (creating).

What is the meaning of hots in maths? ›

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) mathematics problem is non-routine mathematics problem that contains elements of analysis, evaluation, and creation. This research uses problem-solving based on Krulik and Rudnick to analyze student's ability in solving HOTS problem.


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